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Turkey: Turkey Humanitarian Fund for Syria Annual Report 2018

Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Country: Turkey, Syrian Arab Republic
2018 IN REVIEW This Annual Report presents information on the achievements of the Turkey Humanitarian Fund for Syria during the 2018 calendar year. However, because grant allocation, project implementation and reporting processes often take place over multiple years (CBPFs are designed to support ongoing and evolving humanitarian responses), the achievement of CBPFs are reported in two distinct ways: Information on allocations granted in 2018 (shown in blue). This method considers intended impact of the allocations rather than achieved results as project implementation and reporting often continues into the subsequent year and results information is not immediately available at the time of publication of annual reports. Results reported in 2018 attributed to allocations granted in 2018 and prior years (shown in orange). This method provides a more complete picture of achievements during a given calendar year but includes results from allocations that were granted in previous years. This data is extracted from final narrative reports approved between 1 January 2018 – 31 January 2019.
Figures for people targeted and reached may include double counting as individuals often receive aid from multiple cluster/sectors. For this report Syrian NGOs (SNGOs) and National NGOs (NNGOs) will be used to refer to the same group of stakeholders. Contributions are recorded based on the exchange rate when the cash was received. This may differ from the Certified Statement of Accounts that records contributions based on the exchange rate at the time of the pledge. HUMANITARIAN CONTEXT Staggering levels of needs After eight years of conflict in Syria, the scale, severity and complexity of humanitarian needs of people in Syria remained high in 2018. This was the result of continued conflict, new and protracted displacement, and the sustained erosion of communities’ coping mechanisms. At the beginning of the year an estimated 13.1 million people needed some form of humanitarian assistance, including 6.1 million Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs). Over 1.6 million displacements were recorded over the year, forced to flee by conflict. The humanitarian response remained guided by the same objectives as in 2017, with a focus on life-saving activities, protection of vulnerable people, and increasing resilience and access to basic services. Basic services and humanitarian assistance provided by the Turkey cross-border operation included: 1.9 million people reached with food assistance every 3.4 million people reached with water, sanitation and hygiene assi the delivery of education supplies to 1.2 million and, the provision of nutrition assistance to 0.5 million people. In addition, some 12.9 million medical procedures were conducted. A humanitarian readiness plan for a potential large-scale military offensive on northwest Syria was put together in August 2018 together with colleagues in Damascus, targeting up to 900,000 people with humanitarian assistance for six months. Continued hostilities causing displacement Conflict, causing significant humanitarian need occurred throughout the year. Intense hostilities affected eastern Ghouta in Rural Damascus Governorate, south-west Syria and Hama/Homs. As a result, some 95,000 people in dire humanitarian need moved to the north-western Syria as part of the so-called “local agreement”. A military offensive in January on the Afrin area of northern Aleppo by non-state armed groups (NSAGs) with the support of the Government of Turkey led to the displacement of some 135,000 people. In August and September an offensive by the Government of Syria (GoS) and allies in Idleb and Aleppo resulted in the displacement of tens of thousands of people. In September 2018 a “de-militarized zone” (DMZ) agreement in Idleb Governorate and adjacent areas significantly reduced conflict, particularly airstrikes. Nonetheless, shelling occurred on an almost daily basis. At the end of the year, hostilities between non-state armed groups intensified again in Idleb. The humanitarian situation was further aggravated by heavy rains and floods in northern Syria at the end of December. Overall, IDPs represent half of the population in the northwest, living in overcrowded settings with limited access to services and high protection needs. Between September 2017 and December 2018, more than 1.3 million displacements were tracked across north-west Syria. High vulnerability of the overall population North-west Syria was characterised by high levels of vulnerability throughout 2018. Key humanitarian concerns included poor living conditions in congested IDP sites and overburdened host communities. Hostilities during the year caused death and injury, as well as large scale displacement. It further impacted civilian infrastructure, including schools, medical facilities, local markets, and housing, as a result people had acute and protracted humanitarian needs across the area. The food security and agriculture sector estimated that a third of the population in Syria was food insecure, with pockets of acute and chronic malnutrition persisting in some areas. Outbreaks of measles, acute bloody diarrhoea, typhoid fever and leishmaniasis were reported throughout the year. Major protection crisis The conflict in Syria continued to cause a major protection crisis, with civilians exposed to multiple protection risks. These included, exposure to ongoing hostilities, new and protracted displacement, dire conditions in sites and collective shelters hosting IDPs, and the depletion of socio-economic resources, triggering harmful coping strategies (e.g. child labour and early marriages). Attacks on civilian infrastructure, including health care facilities, remained a hallmark of the crisis. The UN estimated that almost half of health facilities in Syria are either partially functional or not functional as a direct result of hostilities. The protection of humanitarian and medical personnel also continued to be a key concern. More than one in three schools were damaged or destroyed as of the end of 2018. Millions of people were exposed to explosive hazards, including in areas in which fighting had ceased and where multiple types of contamination continued to threaten the lives of civilians. Gender-based violence (GBV) continued to affect the lives of women and girls, boys and men, with adolescent girls, single-headed households, especially those divorced and widowed, bearing the brunt of the crisis. The UN estimated that 25 per cent of internally displaced persons (IDPs) were women of reproductive age, and four per cent were pregnant women that required sustained maternal health services, including emergency obstetric care. Elderly people and persons living with disabilities were also among the most vulnerable requiring protection.
The lack or loss of civil documentation, common throughout areas affected by hostilities and displacement, represented a barrier to exercise housing, land and property (HLP) rights. It also impacted freedom of movement and affected access to services. Humanitarian access constraints The ability of humanitarian organizations to access the affected population continued to face a number of challenges. Violence continued to impede humanitarian operations and affect humanitarian workers, especially in frontline areas. In the northwestern part of Syria, attempts at interference by armed groups or civilian authorities in humanitarian work continued to be a challenge. This included attempts at interference in the selection of beneficiaries and staff recruitment, diversion of aid, and taxation issues. This was most significant in Idleb where Hayat Tahrir Al Sham (HTS), a proscribed terrorist group, took greater control of the area and an affiliated civilian authority began running civilian affairs. Risk management and due diligence measures were strengthened as a result, but nonetheless some donors suspended operations in Idleb in September. Administrative processes for NGOs operating in northern Aleppo was another challenge to humanitarian access, where procedures were often unclear. There were also challenges with conditionality being imposed on humanitarian aid. Registration for INGOs operating cross-border from Turkey was a further challenge. Humanitarian Response Plan The figures presented below refers to the Whole of Syria HRP 2018. The HRP guides the humanitarian response of three (3) Humanitarian Funds (HFs) – the Turkey, Syria and Jordan Humanitarian Funds. 13.1M People in need
11.2M People targeted (service delivery) $3.5B Funding requirement


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